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Brooks Library Research Guides: Africana & Black Studies

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The Role of Education
"To save man from the morass of propaganda, in my opinion, is one of the chief aims of education. Education must enable one to sift and weigh evidence, to discern the true from the false, ther real from the unreal, and the facts from the fiction. The function of education, therefore, is to teach one to think intensively and to think critically." The Papers of Matin Luther King, Jr., vol. 1. (1992). Clayborne Carson (ed.)
Doing Research
The information and resources below can help guide you to a lot of good information, but research (and this is a research guide after all) will require you to do and understand more than that. Here are some more things to think about.

Evaluating Web Sites - This University of Texas Arlington guide addresses the age-old question "But is it scholarship?" It outlines standards for evaluating information - authority, accuracy, objectivity, currency, and coverage - along with additional information to help you decide whether the great source you found is a great as you thought, and whether you can use it in your research. Much of this information applies to evaluating information other than websites. If you prefer a more concise, but less thorough, guide to evaluation of information, you can apply the standards supplied by California State University at Chico, available in a tutorial or a printable PDF: Currency, Relevance, Authority, Accuracy, and Purpose.

What is a Scholarly Article? - Scarcely over 3 minutes long, this video features a good, short overview of what scholarly articles are, their parts, and how and why you will use them...and a rat! What's not to love? Plus, there are more in this series from Kimbel Library at Coastal Carolina University, including an introduction to Blackboard in under two minutes.

How can you tell whether a book or other item is high quality and relevant to your research? Reviews may help, so have a look at the Anthropology Review Database (ARD), Choice Reviews Online, or Book Index with Reviews, described below under "Reviews."

Sources, Citation, and Plagiarism:
   Using the ideas and sometime even the exact words of others in your scholarly work is a good thing. It shows that you have done your research, read the sources, and made the effort to synthesize the information, even creating your own ideas or conclusions. It will be required by many of your instructors. As the Harvard Guide to Using Sources puts it, "you engage in a conversation with scholars whose work you" use in your own. However, there are right and wrong ways to do this.
   One very important issue is plagiarism - stealing the intellectual work of others, whether their words or ideas. Of course, few of us intend to plagiarize, but how do you know what is and is not plagiarism? Indiana University's guide  offers an overview, cases and examples, and a quiz so you can test yourself. Harvard, of course, provides a very thorough guide with detailed examples. Lincoln Memorial University's guide provides the bottom line shared by most scholars: "when in doubt, cite it!"
   How to cite in the style required? See "Citing Your Sources" at the bottom of this page.

Keeping Up to Date:
  
If you have a deep interest or ongoing research project, you will want to be aware of new publications in that area. One aid is the use of current awareness services. JournalTOCs, described below in "Finding Scholarly Journal Articles," provides updates free via email or RSS. Some of the databases offered by CWU provide current awareness services as well. A few of these are Wiley Online Library, Web of Science, and Ebsco databases, such as Academic Search Complete.
All Items by Source

Atlases & Maps

WSLS-TV (Roanoke, VA) News Film Collection, 1951 to 1971 Resource contains video
While these news films are from a local station in Virginia, they provide a rare and unusually complete view of local television news from 1951 to 1971. This period covers Virginia's "Civil rights era" as well as the bulk of the Vietnam War. 3,600 clips are currently available, with well over twice as many more, plus scripts, planned to be included by the end of 2013. The collection "includes a significant amount of coverage of Massive Resistance and the Civil Rights Movement in Virginia. National figures and issues that affected the Roanoke area, such as visits from U. S. presidents and the eradication of polio through vaccination, are also discoverable." Browse by date from the home page or choose "Search Inside Collection" to either search or browse using facets offered in the left menu of the search page.
Intute: World Guide

A series of guides for over 270 countries and territories. These include features, demographics, geography data, interactive world maps, satellite photosscrollable city images, and links to resources about each country within the Intute database. You can even compare data between countries. You may go straight to the entry for a specific country via the dropdown menu, or you can search for satellite images and features by keyword.


Mapping History Resource contains images

A project at the University of Oregon, Mapping History contains modern maps illustrating historical topics in American, European, Latin and African history.  Requires Shockwave Player 11.0--a free installation from Adobe.


Modern Atlas of African History
Print Location: G2446 S1 F74 1976

Contains 70 maps (minimal text) of themes or events in African history. Also includes a select bibliography in which the number of each map is given first, followed by letters signifying longitude and numbers signifying latitude.


Oxford Reference Online: Maps Restricted Resource Resource contains images

This title now includes over 775 maps, with locator, physical and political maps for each country, over 120 island maps, state maps for North America, Canada, and Mexico, and more than 100 city maps. It is part of a suite of reference materials available through the subscription database Oxford Reference Online.

For digital collections of original maps, see also the research guide section "Images Online & in Databases."


Biographical Information

African American National Biography
Print Location: E185.96 .A4466 2008

Eight volumes, alphabetically arranged:  v. 1. Aaron-Brown, Ruth -- v.2. Brown, S.-Diggs -- v.3. Dihigo-Gwynn -- v.4 Hacker-Jones, Sarah -- v.5. Jones, Scipio-Moore, Kevin -- v.6. Moore, Lenny-Romain -- v.7. Roman-Tzomes -- v.8. Uggams-Zuber


African Biographical Dictionary
Print Location: Ref DT18 B76 1994

Looks at Sub-Saharan Africa and the island nations of the Indian Ocean. It excludes North Africa and the Mediterranean Basin. Entries are 500 to 1000 words, categorized by nation and field.


Oxford African American Studies Center Resource contains images Some full text available

Includes the full text of several Oxford publications:  Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience (2nd Edition), Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619-1895, Encyclopedia of African American History, 1896 to the Present, Black Women in America (2nd ed.), African American National Biography, and Dictionary of African Biography and the Encyclopedia of African Thought.  It also includes articles from within the Concise Oxford Companion to African American Literature, the Oxford Companion to Black British History, and other major reference titles.  Users can choose to view biographies, subject entries, primary sources, images, maps, or charts and tables when searching or browsing.


Dictionaries & Encyclopedias

Gale Virtual Reference Library Restricted Resource Some full text available
This is a collections of ebooks, available through the library's databases page under "Gale Virtual Reference Library." You can also search for the individual ebooks in this collection by title in Cattrax, our online catalog. The G.V.R. Library includes, among many others, the Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society (3 vols., 2008) and the Encyclopedia of Social Psychology (2 vols., 2007). (Search results in the Gale Virtual Reference Library will include all encyclopedias unless you click on a specific title and use the Quick Search box within the specific title page.)
Encyclopedia of African Nations and Civilizations
Print Location: Ref DT14 .E43 2002

The first section discusses the economy and history of the five regions of Africa--Northern, Eastern, Western, Central and Southern. The next section looks at the continent's cultural development. Finally, the last and largest section lists each civilization alphabetically for an in-depth look at their history as well as providing pertinent facts and figures.  Search the library catalog or ask at the Reference Desk (509) 963-1021 for help in locating historical encyclopedias and dictionaries of other world regions and cultures.


Encyclopedia of Black Studies
Print Location: E185 .E554 2005 Some full text available

Includes bibliographical references (p. 491-506) and index


Oxford African American Studies Center Resource contains images Some full text available

Includes the full text of several Oxford publications:  Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience (2nd Edition), Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619-1895, Encyclopedia of African American History, 1896 to the Present, Black Women in America (2nd ed.), African American National Biography, and Dictionary of African Biography and the Encyclopedia of African Thought.  It also includes articles from within the Concise Oxford Companion to African American Literature, the Oxford Companion to Black British History, and other major reference titles.  Users can choose to view biographies, subject entries, primary sources, images, maps, or charts and tables when searching or browsing.


Oxford Companion to Black British History Restricted Resource Some full text available

The Oxford Companion to Black British History covers the history of black people within Great Britain, not its colonies, from Roman times to contemporary.  Entries in the encyclopedia include bibliographies for further research.  The Companion is part of an online database called Oxford Reference Online.  This subscription database is available directly through the CWU Library homepage under the webpage "Databases by Title".


Finding Books

Open Access Theses and Dissertations (OATD) Some full text available
OATD is an index of theses and dissertations that are freely available to read. Most are also free to download. Currently providing access to over 1.6 million such documents, OATD does not store or index whole documents but indexes the first 30 pages, or thereabouts, to create the searchable index. (So, this is not a full-text search of the document.) Access is via links to the original repository of the item. For a more precise search, click "advanced search" under the search box on the home page. Choice Reviews Online highly recommends OATD and notes that "Search results may be sorted by relevance, author, university, or date. Depending on the search, results may be further limited by date, university, department, degree, level (e.g., doctoral vs. master's), or language."

Finding News Articles

Afrol News Some full text available

Afrol ANS, an independent news company based in Lesotho and Norway, began publishing Afrol News in 2000.  Afrol News is published in English, French, Spanish and Portuguese, and concentrates exclusively on news in Africa.  On this website, you may search by country, by headlines of the day, chronologically in their archives, or by topic--such as agriculture, economy, gender, human rights, politics, society, and technology.


AllAfrica.com Some full text available

One of the largest websites on the Internet devoted to news in Africa.  Searchable by country / region, by topic, or by the day's headlines or most viewed pages.


Newspaper Source: Ebsco Restricted Resource Some full text available

Provides cover-to-cover full text for 25 national & international newspapers. The database also contains selective full text for more than 335 regional (U.S.) newspapers. In addition, full text television & radio news transcripts are also provided.


Finding Scholarly Journal Articles

AfricaBib.org: Africana Periodical Literature Bibliographic Database Some full text available

A searchable index to over 60,000 journal articles relating to African Studies.  For a list of all the journals cited in this database, see the link "List of Periodicals Indexed".  The database also includes articles from some full text electronic journals--to view the articles, click on the "See this Document" link.


JournalTOCs Some full text available
This free service enables you to create an account and select journals to "follow." When one of your journals publishes a new issue, you will be sent the table of contents. In addition, you can create and searches which will generate a notification for you whenever an article which meets your criteria is published in one of the journals they cover. They include information from over 22,000 journals. Whether the journal is open access or subscription is indicated, and direct access is provided to the open access articles and journals. Keep in mind, though, that subscription journal articles may be available at no cost to you through the library databases. Your notifications will be delivered via email or RSS. To see your followed journals or saved searches, move the cursor to your user name in the upper right of most pages (when you are logged in) and select from the dropdown menu.
Academic Search Complete Restricted Resource Resource contains images Some full text available

A scholarly, multi-disciplinary database containing more than 5,300 full-text periodicals, including 4,400 peer-reviewed, scholarly journals, and with indexing and abstracting for more than 9,300 journals.  Academic Search Complete is an EBSCO database, and like most EBSCO databases it includes a "Choose Databases" link near the top of the page that enables you to search multiple EBSCO databases at the same time (an EBSCO multi-disciplinary database that is good to search at the same time as ASC is "MasterFILE Premier").

If the article whose title and abstract you found is not available in the Academic Search Complete database try clicking on "Search for Full Text".  If that option does not provide you with the full-text of the article please consult a librarian or submit an Interlibrary Loan Request.  Many articles are readily available in another database or through Interlibrary Loan and we are here to help you get the information you need!


AfricaBib.org: African Women Bibliographic Database

A searchable index to over 35,000 items published from 1986 to present regarding African women.  Citations are for books and government documents, journal articles, chapters in books, theses and dissertations conference papers; and videos.


eHRAF World Cultures Restricted Resource Some full text available
eHRAF World Cultures – the digital version of the Human Relations Area Files – is a cross-cultural database that contains more than 350,000 pages of descriptive information on cultures, diversity and ethnic groups of the world.  The annually-growing eHRAF database is unique in that the information is organized by cultures and ethnic groups and the full-text sources are subject-indexed at the paragraph level.  The diversity of information includes full-text books, journal articles, and dissertations.

This database supports CWU curricula across a variety of disciplines -- anthropology, social studies, history, sociology, geography, language, multicultural studies, political science, human development, arts, and medicine - if you are in one of these programs this database will be your friend!

Please ask the Reference Help Desk, 1st Floor Brooks Library or (509) 963-1021 for aid in searching this resource, and / or try the tutorial materials available from the homepage of eHRAF (look under "Using HRAF" on the left) or at this link.

Essay & General Literature Index Restricted Resource
This is a bibliographic database that cites essays, articles contained in collections of essays, and miscellaneous works published in the United States, Great Britain, and Canada.  The database now includes nearly 86,000 essays drawn from almost 700 collections.  Essays from more than 300 volumes and more than 20 annuals and serial publications are added annually.  Full bibliographic information on the collective titles indexed is included.

The focus is on the humanities and social sciences, with subject coverage ranging from economics, political science, and history to criticism of literary works, drama, and film.  Citations include articles published as early as 1985.  Each citation links to a list of other works in the collection, others by the author, and others on the subject, as well as to an entry for the source collection.  Works of literary criticism are searchable by names of fictional characters and by the titles of literary works.

The database is searchable by personal and corporate author, title, subject, and keyword, and also by Dewey and LC classification numbers, publisher, publication year, ISBN and ISSN, series, and country of publication.

For aid in locating the full text of articles found within this index, please stop by the 1st Floor Reference Help Desk or call the desk at 509.963.1021.

JSTOR Restricted Resource Some full text available

Our subscription to JSTOR (short for 'Journal Storage') contains every issue of over 600 core scholarly journals in the arts, humanities, the social sciences, as well as the natural and applied sciences.  These journals have been digitized back to the first issue published (in some cases that is the 1600s).  JSTOR also contains citations (bibliographic records) for more than 1,500 leading academic journals, as well as select monographs and other materials valuable for academic work.  (This is why it may not be a good idea to check "Include only content I can access," even if you are in a hurry.  Articles not available in JSTOR are often available in our other databases or through Interlibrary Loan.)

As always, please consult the Reference Desk or the nearest librarian if you have any questions about finding articles in JSTOR or elsewhere.


Handbooks & Guides

African Studies Companion: A Resource Guide & Directory
Print Location: DT19.8 .Z45 1997 Some full text available

Includes bibliographical references and index


Chronology of World Slavery
Print Location: HT861 .R63 1999

Quick reference but also informative as to the sheer scale and variety of slavery around the world and throughout history. The chronological entries are succinct and divided by world regions. There are also a number of historical documents on slavery. See also: A Historical Guide to World Slavery; Reference (1st Floor), Call #: HT861 .H59 1998


Harvard Guide to African-American History
Print Location: Ref E185 .H326 2001

Describes research materials in a variety of formats, and includes a chronological bibliographies divided by theme (General, Historiography, Race Relations, Government, Family, Religion, Education, etc.)


Images & Primary Resources

1963 March on Washington Some full text available Resource contains images Resource contains video Resource contains audio
This post on the Library of Congress(LOC) blog, The Signal, links to a couple of Library of Congress resources, but highlights several others outside of the LOC including the World Digital Library, Historypin, PBS News Hour, the Armistad Digital Resource for Teaching African American History, and the Williams College Digital Collection. Between them, these provide overview text, links to additional resources, teaching guidance, and digitized images, ephemeral, and other primary resources.
Digital Public Library of America Some full text available Resource contains images
DPLA provides a "single point of access" to over 4 million items held in digital collections of "libraries, archives, and museums around the United States." Search and use facets in the left menu to limit the results, or browse. You can "save items to customized lists" and share the lists. Formats include "photographs, manuscripts, books, sounds, moving images, and more." For more information, see the 2013 review in Choice. 
Founders Online Some full text available
Over 119,000 searchable and annotated "records from George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, and James Madison" and many other founders of the United States. "See firsthand the growth of democracy and the birth of the Republic." How to Use this Site offers tips for saving links, finding related documents, choosing effective terms, and much more. Check out the complete Search Help for everything from using the facets to the "Near" function. It accepts truncation, so try searches like slav* to find slave, slavery, and slavish. Keep in mind, though, that will also, unfortunately, retrieve results like Slavic (should that be referred to in these documents).
Historical African American Newspapers Available Online
Prepared and maintained by a librarian at Marist College, this LibGuide research guide provides links to many African American papers nationwide. Although a number are for Marist Users only, many others are freely available online. Can be browsed by title or region. If you want access to one that is subscription-based (says "MARIST USERS ONLY"), be sure to search the CWU catalog by title to see whether we have access.
Innocence Project Some full text available
The Innocence Project is "a national litigation and public policy organization dedicated to exonerating wrongfully convicted people through DNA testing and reforming the criminal justice system to prevent future injustice." As such, it is not directly about race. Nonetheless, their data show the influence of race. Of the 311 exonerees (at the time of the report), they report 193 African Americans, 94 Caucasians, 22 Latinos, and 2 Asian Americanl. More reports and information can be found by entering the term "race" (without quote marks) in the search box at the web site.
Negro Periodicals in the United States
This annotated bibliography helps with discovery of publications. It lists publications, their locations, and the date range of publication. Each is accompanied by a description with includes its focus and general content. It does not do a full text search nor link to full text, in most cases. All but one are no longer in publication; the eras vary from the 1800s to nearly the present. To find the actual publications, try our databases - including ArchiveGrid, OAIster, and WorldCat FirstSearch - as well as Google Books, the Internet Archive, and HathiTrust
Voting Rights Act of 1965 Some full text available
A Supreme Court ruling has changed the landscape around this landmark civil rights legislation. The GPO's FDSys system provides this certified copy of the original legislation. FDSys also provides access to many other important laws, regulations, and related documents through the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), the Federal Register, the U.S. Code, and other sources.
Black Chronology: from 4000 B.C. to the Abolition of the Slave Trade
Print Location: DT17 D5 1983

Look here for documents, events, legislation, inventions, rebellions, papal bulls, statistics, ideologies and personalities related to African history, beginning in 4777 B.C. with the first Egyptian Empire to 1888 and the emancipation of slaves in Brazil. The entries are not footnoted, but a list of references cited is provided.  See also: Chronology of World Slavery, Call Number HT861 .R63 1999.


New York Public Library Digital Gallery Resource contains images

Some 600,000 digital images from within the NYPL's collections.  Browse by subjects alphabetically listed or by suggested disciplines.  Look at this website if you need images of postcards, posters, photographs, etc. of technological changes, specific people and historic events throughout America...not just New York.


Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture Some full text available Resource contains images Resource contains video Resource contains audio

Digital Schomburg collections include "African American Women Writers of the 19th Century" and "Images of African Americans from the 19th Century. Many formats and time periods are represented. For example, "The Abolition of the Slave Trade" includes digitized books from the 1700s to this century, maps, essays, images, and more. Audio/Video resources resources are offered as well. The browsing is good, but a search that does not include all of the collections of the New York Public Library may not be available.


Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database Resource contains images Some full text available

Between the 1500s through the 1800s, over 10 million Africans were forced onto slave trade vessels and shipped to the Americas.  This database, housed at Emory University, is searchable and provides information down to specific slave traders and owners and the names of the trading vessels as well as broader information, such as the number of ships flown under a certain country's flag.  It contains excellent maps, charts, graphs and images, and includes brief essays on aspects of the slave trade, such as the trade in Africa, the Middle Passage, and how it came to an end.  Lesson plans and a list of web resources are also included.


Organizations & Directories

African Studies Association

Includes membership info and opportunities, as well as a list of the ASA sponsored publications (and those publications) no longer in print.


African Studies Gateway on H-Net Some full text available

This is a gateway to a number of listserv groups participating in online discussion networks regarding the history of Africa and its peoples. Students are welcome to read the entries on the listserv or join up and participate. H-Net is also a good place to check for reviews of books on the subject.


Reviews

Choice Reviews Online Restricted Resource Some full text available
Choice is produced by the American Library Association. Over 7,000 authoritative and brief reviews are produced annually on a wide range of fiction and non-fiction.
Book Index with Reviews Restricted Resource Some full text available

Book Index with Reviews™ (BIR) is a comprehensive database that provides information on over 5 million book titles.  BIR also contains almost 800,000 full-text searchable book reviews from some of the most trusted reviewers: Library Journal, School Library Journal, Publishers Weekly, Booklist, Kirkus Reviews, and the New York Times Book Review.

Fiction and non-fiction book titles are included in the database, in all genres, to help you find books to read for fun, for information, or for research.  BIR’s subject headings/genres and flexible search engine can help you find out about popular titles that are currently available, along with those that will soon be published or released.
 


Statistics & Measurements

Intute: Statistics
This site contains links to social science statistical information available online. Categories include: General statistics and data, educational outcomes and institutions, elections and public opinion, housing and migration, population and area statistics, social attitudes and behavior, socio-economic studies, and others.

Web Sites

TED Talks Resource contains video
TED started in 1984 focused on technology, entertainment, and design, but has branched out to encompass, as they say, "Ideas Worth Spreading." Their first 6 talks were posted online in 2006 and they continue to post these highly popular, inspired talks by some of the great thinkers of our time as video presentations. Try searching "hydraulic fracturing," "natural resources," "urban planning," "historic preservation," or "civil liberties," for a few examples. Don't bother with the quote marks, though. A very basic search apparently does not recognize phrase searching. It also does not understand Boolean search terms, resulting in a lack of precision exacerbated by the "fuzzy" search which retrieves any term sharing a common stem (e.g. dog, doggerel, and donut). No advanced search that I found, and no transcripts. Scroll down to find links in the left margin to full lists of the talks.


A-Z of African Studies on the Internet

Michigan State University Librarian, Peter Limb, with help from doctoral candidate, Ibra Seneput together a directory of websites and discussion networks on African Studies that are available on the Internet.


African-American Mosaic

From the Library of Congress, this excellent exhibition "covers the nearly 500 years of the black experience in the Western hemisphere. The Mosaic surveys the full range size, and variety of the Library's collections, including books, periodicals, prints, photographs, music, film, and recorded sound." Includes digital facsimiles of historical letters and more.


Infomine
INFOMINE covers a wide range of topic areas and features well organized access to university level research and educational tools on the Internet through annotated and indexed links to and information about databases, electronic journals, electronic books, bulletin boards, mailing lists, online library catalogs, articles, directories of researchers, and many other information repositories.
Internet Public Library
The Internet Public Library (ipl2) offers thousands of annotated, reviewed links covering all academic disciplines. The ipl2 Pathfinders - extensive annotated lists of resources for a specific topic - are a good place to begin your research and can be found at http://www.ipl.org/div/pf/.
Internet Public Library Arts & Humanities Resources

Interesting and sometimes educational websites are featured on this annotated, topical gateway of websites.  Each website is recommended and annotated by a librarian working for the Librarians Internet Index as a quality resource.  You can also quickly group resources by domain type, so it is easy to see which sites are commercial, from organizations, and from the government.


OAIster Catalog of Digital Resources
OAIster is a catalog more than 25 million records of open access digital resources from around the world including digitized books and articles, born-digital texts, audio files, images, and movies. It is searchable by title, author or creator, subject, language, and keyword, and more. Searching in the OAIster Catalog is by Boolean Search (And, Or, Not. See Colorado State University's explanation at http://lib.colostate.edu/howto/others/boolean.html). The available Limiters are Year, Document Type, and Language. You can create an account that will enable you to save searches. NOTE: Sometimes OAIster may direct you to items that are access restricted. The Librarians in the ARC or at any of the service desks can help you with accessing information that is ‘access restricted’ and with any questions that you might have.

Items Of Interest

PIVOT (Formerly COS Funding Opportunities) Restricted Resource
COS Funding Opportunities has been replaced by COS PIVOT.
This database provides access to funding opportunities as well as scholar profiles, with the ability to add your own scholar profile and to view the profiles of various research organizations.  PIVOT allows you to also prioritize and save your searches to receive weekly alerts.

You must register your own account and log in thereafter in order to use PIVOT. 
Registration and log in is in the upper righthand corner of screen.  Previous CWU users of COS Funding Opportunities may log in with their existing username and password, as the accounts have been transferred over into PIVOT. For more information, please see: Pivot Video Tutorials.

Note: For some opportunities, sponsors accept only a limited number of proposals or applications from an institution, or require an institution to rank or prioritize applications before submission.
If an opportunity is marked "Internal Coordination Required," please contact the Office of Graduate Studies and Research before applying.
Citing Your Sources
Citing any and all ideas or concepts, as well as direct quotes ~~
  • shows respect for the creator.
  • helps your readers find your source to confirm your interpretation, understand the context, and learn additional information and ideas.
  • is required under CWU's academic code (Academic Dishonesty, Student Rights and Responsibilities Policy II.B., 2012-2013 Catalog http://catalog.acalog.cwu.edu/index.php?catoid=35).

To learn or review acceptable use of the work of others, see Plagiarism: What it is...and is not .

For help formatting your citations, see CWU Brooks Library's Citation & Style Manuals for the Social Sciences or:
Online Writing Center (OWL), Purdue
University of Washington Citations and Writing Guide

For tools for managing your references, see the links from
University of Washington Citations and Writing Guide . Zotero and Mendeley are the free options currently available. The UW Guide has links to guides and handouts for Zotero and Mendeley.
Key to Icons

Restricted Resource = Restricted resource
Some full text available = Some full text
openURL = OpenURL enabled

Resource contains images = Images
Resource contains video = Video files
Resource contains audio = Audio files

Subject Specialist
Picture: Lisa Euster

Lisa Euster
Research Librarian
Tel: (509) 963-1642

New York Times Black History & Culture

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Related Research Guides
There are additional research guides that may help you with your research. Here are a few:

Black History Month
Citation & Style Manuals for the Social Sciences
Ethnic Studies
History (Americas, World)
Sociology